Digestive Tract, Lung, Hematological, Neurological, Renal Cancers Common in IBD

Individuals with IBD are being more commonly diagnosed with cancer.

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk for cancer compared with the general population, with cancers of the digestive tract most common, according to study results presented at the Advances in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (AIBD) 2022 conference, held from December 5 to 7, 2022, in Orlando, Florida.

The population-based, case-control study evaluated whether incident cancers are diagnosed more frequently over time and if patients with IBD are more likely to be diagnosed with cancer.

Patients with IBD were identified and stratified by Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Each case was matched by age and sex to 10 non-IBD cases from the general population and linked to a cancer registry to obtain confirmed incident cancer cases.

A total of 3695 incident cases of cancer were diagnosed in 35,763 patients with IBD vs 31,365 cancer cases in 362,248 control individuals (IBD: odds ratio [OR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.18-1.27; CD: OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.34-1.49; and UC: OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.20).

Healthcare providers should be aware of the higher occurrence of hematological, neurological, lung, and renal cancers in those with IBD.

The annual number of incident cases of cancer in patients with IBD increased steadily by 3.4% per year (average annual percentage change [AAPC], 3.44%; 95% CI, 2.71%-4.18%). Digestive tract cancers were associated with greater odds: biliary and liver (IBD: OR, 7.76; 95% CI, 5.89-10.22); colorectal cancer (IBD: OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.67-2.15); small bowel (CD: OR, 10.81; 95% CI, 6.89-16.95; UC: OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 0.73-4.16); and pancreas (IBD: OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 5.72-11.20).

The following cancers also occurred more frequently in patients with IBD: hematological (IBD: OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.29-1.67); lung (IBD: OR, 4.16; 95% CI, 3.59-4.81); neurological (IBD: OR, 4.73; 95% CI, 3.12-7.18); and renal (IBD: OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.77-2.68).

IBD was associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.18), but not melanoma (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.82-1.18). Other solid-organ cancers either were not associated with or were less common in patients with IBD: prostate (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.60-0.77); bladder (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.92); cervix (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73-0.93); endometrium (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.36-0.70); and thyroid (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.65-1.10).

“Over time, persons with IBD are being more commonly diagnosed with cancer,” the study authors wrote. “Healthcare providers should be aware of the higher occurrence of hematological, neurological, lung and renal cancers in those with IBD.”

References:

Coward S, Murthy S, Singh H, Benchimol E, Kuenzig E, Kaplan G. Cancers associated with inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based case-control study. Abstract presented at: AIBD 2022; December 5-7, 2022; Orlando, FL. Abstract 45.