A report on the largest multistate produce-linked Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli outbreak in the United States highlighted challenges in determining the route of contaminated lettuce and in providing rapid, actionable guidance during an outbreak.
Treatment with cotrimoxazole in infants exposed to HIV but uninfected (HEU) increases resistance gene prevalence and α-diversity and decreases microbial taxonomic, functional pathway, and resistance gene β-diversity.
A growing body of research points to the role of the gut-brain axis in the development of Parkinson disease, with inflammatory bowel disease, leaky gut, and altered gut microbiota observed in the gut, often years before the onset of symptoms of Parkinson disease.
Data on the composition and structure of the vaginal microbiome in women with genital Chlamydia trachomatis published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases revealed that Lactobacillus iners- dominated communities were most common post-treatment.
Patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) were less likely to develop bloodstream infections (BSI) if treated with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) compared with antibiotics.
The researchers concluded that this is the first study to investigate the mucosa-associated gut microbiome in an adult population-based cohort and that no distinct microbial signature was observed in IBS.
Prospective studies are needed to determine what changes are significantly associated with treatment, whether these changes are causes or effects of response, and whether the composition of the intestinal microbiome can be used to select treatments for patients with IBD.