The following article is a part of conference coverage from the Digestive Disease Week 2021 Annual Meeting , held virtually from May 21 to 23, 2021. The team at Gastroenterology Advisor will be reporting on the latest news and research conducted by leading experts in gastroenterology. Check back for more from DDW 2021.
Administration of a novel probiotic supplement was associated with significant reduction of intestinal inflammation in rodent models with Crohn disease (CD)-like ileitis, according to study data presented at Digestive Disease Week 2021. These results may have important implications for the treatment of CD and other inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs).
Investigators developed a novel combination supplement containing probiotic strains known to antagonize bacterial pathogens in the gut: S boulardii, L acidophilus, L rhamnosus, and B breve. The supplement was administered daily to mice aged 7 weeks with CD-like ileitis (SAMP/YitFc [SAMP] strain). Vehicle-treated SAMP mice were used as controls.
After 60 days of supplement or vehicle administration, mice were sacrificed and ilea were collected for histological evaluation. Microbiome composition in stool samples was also assessed using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) analysis.
Histological scoring of ilea indicated that supplement-treated mice had significantly lower disease severity compared with controls (P =.0069). Specifically, probiotic-treated mice displayed “improved villous architecture, a decreased percentage of inflammatory infiltrates, and less thickening of the lamina propria” compared with control mice.
Alpha diversity was substantially increased after probiotic treatment compared with pre-treatment, suggesting that the novel probiotic combination increased bacteriome richness. Control mice did not experience substantial microbiome changes over the study course.
In analyses of the relative abundance of specific bacterial species, treated mice appeared to have significantly lower amounts of the genus Lactobacilluscompared with controls (P <.05). Levels of Rikenellaceae were significantly increased in treated vs vehicle mice.
Results from this study suggest that a novel combination of probiotics may decrease intestinal inflammation and improve alpha diversity in CD. Further study in patients with CD is necessary to better explore the utility of this probiotic mixture. “These findings provide the rationale for clinical testing of this novel probiotic combination in patients with IBD,” investigators wrote.
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Di Martino L, Osme A, Pizarro TT, Ghannoum M, Cominelli F. A novel probiotic combination ameliorates experimental Crohn’s disease-like ileitis by correcting intestinal dysbiosis. Presented at: Digestive Disease Week Annual Meeting; May 21-23, 2021. Abstract 720.