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Thoracic Aortic Procedures – Arch or Hemiarch Procedures

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Open thoracic surgery for aortic repair or replacement is performed for the treatment of aortic aneurysms and dissections. A thoracic aortic aneurysm has a localized vessel diameter 50% more than the normal value (adjusted for age and height), whereas an aortic dissection is the structural violation…

Thoracic Aortic Procedures – Endovascular Thoracic Aortic Repair

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Definition of an Endovascular Repair Endovascular repair of the thoracic aorta (Thoracic Endovascular Repair [TEVAR]) is typically performed by stent graft placement via peripheral arterial cannulation. These have primarily been deployed to repair the thoracoabdominal and descending aorta, but the use of fenestrated stent grafts in…

Repair of facial fractures – Procedures

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Facial fractures are the major type of maxillofacial trauma. They also result in airway compromise, vision loss and hemorrhage, which can be life-threatening. The causes of facial fractures vary, with the most common being motor vehicle accidents, sport related injuries, assaults and gunshots. Following high velocity…

Splenectomy – procedures

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure There are several indications for splenectomy – traumatic injury, idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP), hereditary spherocytosis, staging surgery, splenic infarction, and splenomegaly. Each has different associated comorbidities and risks involved. Depending on the indication, splenectomies can be performed either laparoscopically or in open fashion. Traumatic injury was…

Parathyroidectomy

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Parathyroidectomy is the definitive surgical treatment for elevated levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH is the principal hormone regulating calcium hemostasis. PTH maintains serum calcium by stimulating bone resorption, thus releasing calcium, and by enhancing gastrointestinal absorption and inhibiting renal excretion of calcium. In primary hyperparathyroidism…

Cystectomy and Urinary Division – Procedures

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Many patients with bladder tumor choose radical cystectomy (RCX) as the treatment. RCX remains the most effective treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer and for recurrent high-grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) tumors. Different organs are moved for males and females. Because cystectomy interrupts the normal…

Myelodysplasia

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Myelodysplasia includes all the following conditions with varying degrees of spinal dysraphism (i.e., abnormal fusion of the posterior neuropore or failure of the neural tube to fuse): Encephalocoele – a relatively rare defect involving the cranium Meningocoele – contains CSF and no neural tissue Myelomeningocoele –…

Excision of the radial head

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Radial head excision is performed only in stable elbow with laterally based elbow pain as a result of forearm rotation and/or axial loading. Radial head excision is not performed in elbows with pre-existing instability, especially in fracture dislocation, because of poor outcome result. The anesthesiologist should…

Lysis of Adhesions

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Intra-abdominal adhesions develop as a result of abdominal surgery (laparotomy or laparoscopic) or less commonly from inflammatory conditions. In fact, adhesions are the most common etiology for small bowel obstruction. While many patients who develop adhesions can be managed conservatively, some will require surgery for lysis…

HIV patients

What should the Anesthesiologist Should Know Prior to the Operative Procedure Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative viral organism of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), was first recognized over 20 years ago, and has since infected approximately 50 million people worldwide. In the United States, there are between 850,000 to 1 million cases of HIV/AIDS,…

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