Injecting mice with microbial antigens via adjuvant CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) and/or curdlan can induce antigen-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses that protect against microbe-associated intestinal diseases.
The impact of eradicated Helicobacter pylori on the pediatric gastric microbial community structure shows restoration of bacterial diversity consistent with noninfected children in the same endemic region.
65 percent of physicians are still carrying debt from medical school. Thirty-two percent of respondents reported more than $250,000 in remaining debt, and roughly the same amount (34 percent) expected it would take at least 10 years to pay off their student loans.
Nearly half of patients with early-stage PBC progress to a more severe stage within 5 years. Progression is associated with increased risk of a clinical event, so surveillance is important for patients with early-stage PBC.